Classification of dangerous goods
Hazardous materials and products are divided into 9 classes or classes according to their characteristics and type of hazard in both ADR and RID regulations. The explanation of each of the 9 mentioned classes is as follows:
Class 1- Explosives
Flammable materials are materials or combinations of substances that are capable of exerting their effect through heat, light, sound, gas, or smoke by an exothermic, non-explosive chemical reaction. Flammable materials are considered to be explosives even when they produce gas. Explosives are solids and liquids that can damage the environment through chemical reactions by producing gas, temperature, speed or pressure.
Class 1-1 Gunpowder
This group of explosives are substances that explode en masse upon contact with a flame.
Class 2-1 Nitrate compounds - cellulose nitrate and potassium nitrate and ...
This group of materials and compounds burn quickly and easily and produce large fires, but their explosive power is less than the previous group. In this group of fires, it is necessary to use a respirator to protect against the resulting vapors.
Class 3-1: Nitrogenous compounds
This group of explosives explodes en masse due to contact with fire, but the time of their contact with the flame must be long enough to explode like objects of group one.
Class 4-1 Chloride compounds
This group of explosives burns strongly and produces thick smoke, but the risk of explosion of these materials is much lower than the previous groups or there is no explosion risk at all.
Class 5-1 Burners
This group of explosives produces toxic substances when burned, in this group the risk of explosion is low.
Class 6-1 Ammunition
This group of materials must be exposed to the flame for a while to become hot and explosive. The risk of mass explosion in this group of materials is less, but if the fire continues, there will be scattered explosions that have a high transmission power. This group of explosives produce explosive parts.
Class 7-1 Flammable materials
This group of explosives poses hazards such as flammability or poisoning and burning. These materials must be exposed to flame or heat for a while before they explode and explode completely, the risk of mass explosion in this group of materials is less. But continued heat causes the explosion amplitude to expand rapidly.
Class 8-1 Radiological Explosives
This group of explosives has radiological dangers that will explode if a flame or heat reaches them, and as a result of this explosion, they produce their own explosives and the miscellaneous people must be removed to a distance of about 1500 meters.
Class 9-1 Metal powders
This group of materials are non-explosive objects that contain metal powders such as magnesium, aluminum or zinc powder. Rules for the transportation of Class 1 materials
Rules for the transportation of Class 1 materials
It is forbidden to carry materials that are very sensitive and may explode on their own. Prior to the shipment of goods, the classification of each item and explosives along with its brand must be approved by the competent authority of the country of manufacture. A new license must be obtained for the following: - New explosives - A combination or mixture of explosives that is significantly different from previous compounds and explosives - New design of a product containing explosives - An explosive with new packaging
Class 2 - Gases
Gases are divided into the following types based on their chemical properties or physiological effects:
Non-flammable and non-toxic
Toxic or corrosive
Some gases are chemically or physiologically neutral. Although these gases are non-toxic, large amounts of them can cause suffocation. Many gases in this class have a destructive effect at low densities and may turn into highly toxic gases in the presence of fire. Gases of this class are flammable, flammable, poisonous or explosive.
Types of gases in transportation
From the point of view of transportation, gases are divided into four groups, which are: - Compressed gases: gases that are completely gaseous in packaging containers for transport under pressure, at a temperature of -50 degrees Celsius. Gases whose critical temperature (Critical Temperature) is less than or equal to -50 degrees Celsius are in this group. Liquefied gases: Gases that are in semi-liquid state in packaging containers for transportation at temperatures above -50 degrees. Refrigerated liquefied gases: Gases that become semi-liquid due to low pressure in packaging containers for transportation. - Soluble gases: Gases that dissolve in packaging containers for transport in a soluble liquid.
Identify gases according to the danger they pose
Clearance and separation of gases are divided according to the danger they produce in transportation and clearance. These gases are considered as dangerous goods and if they are not stored safely, they can explode and cause danger and release anesthetic stimulant gases. , Are toxic and flammable, and some of them can have all the properties of flammable, toxic, flammable and oxidizing at the same time.
Class 3 - Flammable liquids
Flammable liquids are liquids or mixtures thereof or liquids containing soluble or suspended solids (such as paints, polishes, varnishes, etc., other than those classified in other classes because of their hazardous properties). Which emit flammable vapor at the flash point
Class 4-Hazardous solids
4-1 Flammable solids
Flammable solids, substances in the vicinity of which produce flammable gas. Materials in this class are easily flammable under transport conditions and can cause a fire (other than those classified as explosives). Mainly includes the following: Powdery, granular and sticky materials Solids that may cause fire through friction should be classified into groups 1-4
4.2 Spontaneously flammable solids
Class 2-4 includes the following materials:
- Materials containing solutions (liquid and solid) that ignite even in small amounts in the presence of air within 5 minutes. These materials are very prone to spontaneous ignition. - Materials that heat up in contact with air without an energy source. These materials ignite only in high quantities (kg) and after a long time (several hours or days).
4.3 Elements that appear dangerous when wet and produce toxic and flammable gases
The elements in this group are both solid and liquid and have a common property, that they disperse flammable gases when wet, and some of these elements produce toxic gases in contact with water, moisture or acids.
Class 5 - Organic oxidants and peroxides
Packaging of this type of goods due to the rapid ignition of their oxidizing agents should protect its internal contents against all sources of external combustion.
5-1 Oxidizing agents
Oxidizing agents are substances that are not necessarily flammable themselves but can cause other substances to ignite by producing oxygen.
5.2 Organic peroxides
These substances are derivatives of hydrogen peroxide whose hydrogen valleys in their structure have been replaced by organic radicals. These materials are unstable and may decompose in the presence of heat. These materials can explode due to decomposition and ignite with great intensity.
Class 6- Toxic substances and infectious substances
6-1- Toxic substances
Toxins are substances that can kill a person if swallowed, inhaled, or come in contact with the skin. All toxic substances emit toxic gases in the presence of fire or high heat.
6-2 Infectious substances
Infectious substances are substances that contain pathogens such as germs, viruses, bacteria, etc. that can cause disease in humans and animals.
Class 7- Radioactivity materials
Radioactivity materials are substances that produce alpha-beta and gamma rays themselves, and due to the extremely dangerous nature of these objects, there are special rules and regulations for their transport and storage with special labels.
Class 8- Corrosive substances
Corrosive substances are substances that, if they come in contact with living tissues, are damaged by chemical interactions, or by leakage and contact with other substances, they can damage metals, other goods, and even vehicles. In addition to being harmful to the existing skin, these substances are also toxic and harmful. Also, ingestion or inhalation of vapors of such substances will cause poisoning. Some of these substances are able to penetrate through the skin into the body. All materials in this class can damage metals and textiles. Some materials in this group also produce heat in the presence of water or other organic materials such as wood, paper, fiber.
Class 9- Dangerous goods
Any element or liquid that is gradually discovered and may be hazardous is classified in Class 9. Materials related to this class are classified into one of eight groups of dangerous goods after performing the necessary tests and identifying their exact nature.